For the Wildlife Defenders

3 March is UN World Wildlife Day, dedicated to the day of signature of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). This year’s theme is “Listen to the Young Voices”- stay tuned for forthcoming news from community engagement workshops conducted as part of our first Project field trip- including from Cambodia’s only mobile environmental education unitcoming soon!

Cambodia is located within the of Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, which boosts high levels of fauna and flora endemism, but limited remaining natural habitat; ranked among the top 10 for irreplaceability and top five for threat by the IUCN.

We would therefore like to take this opportunity to acknowledge those committed to defending wildlife in Cambodia, particularly those on the ground working at the forefront of direct protection.

With rapidly rising temperatures, peak tourist season in Cambodia is drawing to a close. Over the last months, we’ve received a few alerts from concerned tourists who report seeing ‘wild cats’ kept in cages -which locals claimed were Fishing Cats- primarily at floating villages around the Tonle Sap lake near Siem Reap. 

Keeping/exhibiting wild species is not uncommon in rural areas, especially those which receive tourists but is unlawful in Cambodia (see below)

Long-tailed Macaque chained at Mondulkiri Sanctuary, visited by Project staff in August 2016

Where possible, we recommend not supporting sites and/or individuals which keep wild species captive, (with the exception of wildlife rescue centres/sanctuaries such as Phnom Tamao, the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity (ACCB) and the Elephant Valley Project).

See guidance below on what to do should you find yourself in this situation.

We extend our sincere thanks to all those who have sought out the Project to pass on such information- the Fishing Cat is under-studied in the country so such reports may enable us to form more accurate pictures of their range. And after all, it was first-hand sightings from locals which guided our placement of camera-traps in the 2015 CBC survey and enabled us to document the new population in Peam Krasop Wildlife Sanctuary!

All captive wildcats from these reports have since been identified as Leopard Cats, which look similar to Fishing Cats and are often mistaken for them. (Watch this space for our forthcoming blog ‘Fishing Cat or Leopard Cat?’)

Thanks to reports…

4 Leopard Cat kittens were rescued and are now in safe hands at Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre:

1 kitten from a floating village on the Tonle Sap lake:



and 3 more from Kampong Speu province, facilitated in part by our own Community Officer, Sothearen Thi who raised the alarm with us and followed up by calling on just the people for the job (see below).

See this video about their progress:

The Suwanna Sunday Show: #4 Phnom Tamao… – Suwanna Gauntlett, Wildlife Alliance

The Suwanna Sunday Show: #4 Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Center My morning at our baby nursery: tender moments with Lili , Lola , Tic Tic and Tom Tom, all rescued from the hands of traffickers by Wildlife Alliance. #wildlifealliance #phnomtamao #wildlife #hope #animalfriends

They join Leopard Cats which were rescued as kittens and re-located to Phnom Tamao in 2016 & 2015:

Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Center

This is one of two Leopard cat kittens that were rescued from the pet trade earlier in September of this year. It is not only illegal to have a Leopard cat as a pet in Cambodia, but they also become a little “wild” as they grow up!

The right side of the Law

Under Cambodian law, Catching, trapping, poaching, poisoning, collecting eggs, and offsprings of wildlife”, is strictly prohibited and punishable by fines of up to $250,000 (Protected Area Law 2008 Article 58 (see also Articles 43, 59, 60, 61).

Who you gonna call?!

Following a sighting, inform Wildlife Alliance’s Wildlife Rapid Rescue Team (WRRT) on:

+855 (0)12500094 or via their Facebook page as soon as possible with details of:

  • the exact location (NB. the name of the village rather than the point of departure if possible);
  • date;
  • description of the animal (preferably with photos to enable identification)

The WRRT exist to detect wildlife crime and take action, including confiscating and re-locating wildlife to  Phnom Tamao for rehabilitation and possible re-introduction into the wild from dedicated release stations, including one in the Cardamoms near Koh Kong.

See the heartwarming release of bonded pairs of Endangered Pileated Gibbons here.

Only in a handful of cases where animals have sustained serious injury or sufficiently protected area is lacking do animals remain at Phnom Tamao where they receive the best possible care. For a video overview of the Center see here.

Should I stay or should I go?

We are beginning work on a guide to ethical, ecological tourist sites and attractions around Cambodia to better inform decision making, but in the meantime the South China Morning Post listing, “Six of the best wildlife-spotting locations in South and Southeast Asia“, in which Cambodia features twice, is a good place to start. NB. For visits to the Prek Toal Bird Reserve, we recommend visiting with the Sam Veasna Center, see here for more.

How can I help?

When it comes to choosing your holiday destination wisely, see our above recommendations, with more coming soon in our forthcoming guide.

If you see or hear about Fishing Cat (‘Kla Trey’ in Khmer), please tell us after alerting the WRRT where appropriate. Such reports better inform our conservation work and help wildcats find their way back to the forest.

Male Fishing Cat captured by camera-trap in PKWS sniffing mark(s)    Send article as PDF   

In Praise of Mangroves

Today is World Wetlands Day, which commemorates the day in 1971 that the Convention on Wetlands was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar (hence the List of Wetlands of International Importance or Ramsar sites), which to this day remains the only international treaty devoted to a single ecosystem type. Through the Ramsar Convention, over 476,000 acres of wetland have been protected.1 Since 1997, February 2 has been devoted to raising awareness of the importance of wetlands.

As all the wetlands at our research site, Peam Krasoap Wildlife Sanctuary (PKWS) are coastal mangroves, we’re focusing on their importance and role in the wider biome to mark the day.

Mangroves: an overview

“The value of mangroves has been hugely overlooked. Mangroves are incredibly valuable, left standing,” the words of senior marine scientist with The Nature Conservancy and lead author of the UNEP commissioned World Atlas of Mangroves, Mark Spalding.

As Earth Watch observes: “the stilt-like mangrove is an unlikely superhero.” But as we shall see, mangroves have a vital role to play in maintaining coastal ecological health,2 as well as in reduction of disaster risk3, which is the theme of World Wetlands Day 2017 (WWD17). “WWD17 will focus on how wetlands can be protected, restored, and managed effectively to help absorb the shocks of natural disasters,”4 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) reports. This follows a UN Water estimate that 90% of all natural hazards are water-related.5

This animation from the Mangrove Action Project illustrates the growing importance of mangroves to the health of the planet:

What’s a Mangrove?

Mangroves are salt-water tolerant shrubs and trees that grow in shallow, tropical coastal waters,” states one official World Wetlands Day document.

‘Mangrove’ can refer to the mangrove habitat, just as the term ‘rainforest’ is a designation based on plant types. The habitat may also be called a ‘tidal forest’ or a ‘mangrove forest’.6

Go inside a mangrove forest with this video from the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation, a “non-profit environmental science organization and ocean research foundation established to help preserve, protect and restore the world’s oceans and aquatic resources through researcheducation, and outreach.”

Where are mangroves found?

Forming dense forests, they are found along many tropical and subtropical coasts, from South America to Asia, from Africa to New Zealand, in 123 countries and territories in total, with an estimated cover of over 150,000km² globally.7

Global mangrove distribution map taken from Mangrove Watch Ltd. (2013)

Mangrove species are divided into two global hemispheres: the Atlantic East Pacific (AEP) covering west Africa and the Americas, and the Indo West Pacific (IWP), which covers east Africa and the Asia-Pacific, which contains the most diverse mangrove flora.8

Cambodia’s mangroves are concentrated in the Indo-Malesia subregion of the IWP.

What makes mangroves special?

Amongst the planet’s most complex ecosystems, mangrove forests “flourish where most plants perish”, growing in conditions of searing heat, low-oxygen soils and frequent saltwater inundation.9

The loss of natural wetland area (estimated to be in excess of 64% since 190010) has resulted in a loss of many of the benefits associated with wetlands (see below). Estimates of the value of these lost services stand at around $7.2 trillion per year for tidal marshes and mangroves.11

Despite their priceless biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services, mangroves are in rapid decline, threatened with drainage for agriculture, degradation, pollution, and destruction at an alarming pace,” according to a World Wetlands Day media release by the IUCN.

For an infographic on the multiple values of mangroves see here.

Why are mangroves important?

See a short summary video from the Mangrove Action Project below:


Wetlands are some of the most productive habitats on the planet, which often support high densities of animals, including mammals, birds, fish and invertebrates.12

The nutrients available from mangrove leaves and roots nourish plankton, algae, fish and shellfish, with mangrove forests’ stilt and prop root systems acting as nurseries.

Mangroves at Peam Krasop Wildlife Sanctuary where we work are no exception (see a brief video of PKWS here).

Water Filtration and Purification

The UNEP’s Coastal Ecosystem-Based Adaptation page for Mangrove Conservation and Restoration lists that, amongst additional benefits for biodiversity which may result from mangrove conservation and restoration, “mangroves filter and trap sediment from run-off and river water before it reaches adjacent ecosystems, reducing the turbidity of the water and allowing essential light to reach ecosystems.” Concluding that, “mangroves therefore contribute to the survival of these adjacent ecosystems and the species they support.”13 The World Atlas of Mangroves estimates that mangrove related species in Southeast Asia support 30% of fish catch, rising to almost 100% for shrimp catch.14

Mangroves filter catchment runoff, prompting some to dub them the “kidneys” of the coast. This filtration helps to reduce shoreline erosion. For a brief explanation of how mangroves filter coastal water, see this video below:

Urban centres near mangroves benefit from this in practical ways; according to the WWF, some cities have made savings of $3-8 billion in new wastewater treatment plants by purchasing and preserving $1.5 billion in wetlands around reservoirs.

Organizations such as the Biomimicry Institute, which “empowers people to create nature-inspired solutions for a healthy planet” are supporting efforts to research, recreate and harness mangrove-like technology to transform salty water into potable water. For more on biomimicry of mangroves’ filtration, see our technology section here.

Reduction of disaster risk (for a summary see here)

Mangrove roots bind the shoreline, and prevent coastal erosion.15 Forests act as bulwarks to storm winds and incoming waves16 17 associated with extreme weather events, the frequency of which is expected to increase due to human-induced climate change.

A 2014 review of all existing research into the role of mangroves in coastal protection described how a 100 metre wide belt of mangrove can reduce wave heights by 13-66%, and up to 100% where mangroves reach 500 metres or more in width.18

According to the Ramsar Convention, Each kilometer of mangrove forest can reduce a storm surge by 50cm, blunting the impact of cyclones/hurricanes and tsunamis,” Healthy wetlands can absorb some of the shock caused by extreme weather events, cushioning the damage in local communities. Evidence points to mangroves having mitigated the impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami by reducing the destructive energy of water which flowed inland.19

The island town of Silonay in the Philippines provides an even more dramatic example. In 2009, the town was identified by scientists from Conservation International as among the areas most vulnerable to climate change impacts within the Verde Island passage.20 “But the scientists also explained that the town’s residents also had an unprecedented opportunity: to protect its serendipitous mangroves to help protect themselves.”

They were proved right: when Typhoon Haiyan (the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall anywhere in the world) passed over Silonay in 2013, the mangroves kept Haiyan’s waves at bay; the town didn’t flood, unlike elsewhere in the Philipines where Haiyan devastated communities, claiming 6,000 lives, and displacing 4 million people.21

The short documentary below shows the island of Koh Klang in the Krabi river estuary in Southern Thailand, where mangroves have depleted greatly in the last 50 years, how people have been affected, and  what is being done to restore these habitats to secure a more sustainable future.

There is also evidence that mangroves support soil stabilization and sediment capture, and further, that they are able to build up soil levels vertically (accrete) through formation of layers of peat.22

This in turn means that under the right conditions, mangroves may keep up with sea level rise.23 Additional evidence has found that mangroves act as a refuge for corals from ocean acidification.24

Absorbing excess water from floods, dispersing tidal surges associated with these events and storing water during droughts,25 mangroves can help strengthen people and nature’s resilience to disaster impacts.26

To see how mangroves can  contribute to risk reduction in different settings see here.

Climate change

Mangroves’ ability to trap organic sediment and thus store carbon explains why mangroves are increasingly referred to as ‘blue carbon’ sinks. Moreover, as mangroves age, they store proportionally more carbon in their biomass because of higher productivity.30 Where data is available, they have been shown to capture up to six times more carbon per hectare than undisturbed rainforests.31

Mangrove forests are the ultimate illustration of why humans need nature,” says Mark Spalding, lead author of the World Atlas of Mangroves and senior marine scientist with The Nature Conservancy. He continues that the importance of mangroves’ “natural coastal defenses… will only grow as sea level rise becomes a reality around the world.”32

Threats to Mangroves

Mangroves and tidal saltmarshes are amongst the most endangered marine wetland habitats worldwide.” That’s according to Mangrove Watch, a monitoring program which partners mangrove scientists and community participants the world over. These wetlands are disappearing at up to 2% a year on average,33 with destruction occurring up to four times faster than within the world’s land-based forests, according to the World Atlas of Mangroves report. Consequently, there has been a dramatic loss of ecosystem services from mangroves with vast losses in area and function as remnant patches progressively deteriorate.34

Mangroves in Peam Krasop Wildlife Sanctuary (PKWS)


Koh Kapik and Associated Islets, (KKAI) is made up of alluvial islands immediately off the mainland of Koh Kong province.

Taken from Ramsar Sites Information Service document

Spanning a total of 12,000ha, of which 60% is located within PKWS (see below), the area was designated as a Ramsar site in mid-1999.

The area is characterized by “substantial tracts of intact mangrove forest”, much of it inundated during the spring tides only. The relatively-intact mangroves mean that the area contributes significantly in the stabilization of the coast against coastal erosion from storm and tidal bore, and furthermore the mangroves are said to have assumed increased importance in providing nursery and feeding grounds for various invertebrate species since the substantial removal of mangrove forests in nearby Thailand.35


The inflow from two major rivers, Prek Koh Pao in the North, and Prek Khlang Yai/Stung Kep in the South is essential for maintenance of the site’s brackish-water character, which supports an assemblage of brackish-water plankton and fish populations, the food base for the majority of birds which use the site. The estuary-mangrove system plays a critical role as a nursery ground and nutrient resort for the adjacent coastal fish populations, supporting very valuable fisheries which provide the main income for coastal fishermen communities.36

Species in PKWS mangroves


Criteria applied to the designation of KKAI as a Ramsar site included its special value to endemic plant or animal species.


Of the eight IUCN red-listed mammal species identified by locals in 2009 village surveys, (in An Dara et al 2009), three were recorded within PKWS during the brief 2015 CBC Fishing Cat survey, in addition to: Hog Deer, Asian Water Monitor, Leopard Cat, Large-Spotted Civet, Asian Mongoose, Smooth-Coated Otters and of course, Fishing Cat!37

The following significant birds species have been recorded in Koh Kapik and Associated Islets : Nordmann’s or Spotted Greenshank, Green Peafowl, both Endangered, and Sarus Crane, now listed Vulnerable.


Of over 50 mangrove species found in Asia, 37 species are present in Cambodia. PWKS represents a mangrove ecosystem of: Brownlowia tersa, Sonneratia ovata, which are both Near Threatened; Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, all Least Concern, backed by Lumnitzera littorea, Lumnitzera racemosa, both Least Concern and Phoenix paludosa, (Mangrove Date Palm), which is Near Threatened. The current population trends of all these species are decreasing across their geographic range.

Within PKWS, local Cambodian coral experts have identified 56 different types of hard and soft corals38 amongst the 600 hectares around Koh Kong province.

The below video explains the symbiotic relationship between coral reefs and coastal mangroves:

Mangrove management

As World Atlas of Mangroves author Mark Spalding points out, mangroves can be restored.39 Although mangrove management requires a degree of specialised knowledge and equipment, as the UNEP’s page on Coastal Ecosystem-Based Adaptation states,“many aspects of conservation and restoration can be implemented at the community level40, for example in re-planting activities.”

In the below video Lecturer in Environmental Marine Biology at the University of Hull, UK, Dr Magnus Johnson explains how mangrove seedlings naturally establish themselves:

“Why are mangroves so important? How are they under threat? And what can we do to help protect them? This short video  sets out to answer those questions, using photographs from all around the tropics, encouraging participation and help spread awareness of the mangrove forest.” – Mangrove Action Project

The national World Wetlands Day event in 2013 included the planting of over 200 kg of grass and more than 500 mangrove seedlings in PKWS and Peam Krasop beach where erosion was reported.

The event drew in 650 participants, including national and provincial government ministers, representatives from the Ministry of Environment and IUCN Cambodia office, University students from Phnom Penh, local students from nearby primary and secondary schools and members of communities.

Kong Kim Sreng (whose 2003 survey yielded the only camera-trap photo of a Fishing Cat in Cambodia previous to the 2015 CBC Fishing Cat survey), then Senior Programme coordinator for IUCN Cambodia, now Director of Terrestrial Protected Area Conservation at the Ministry of Environment, reiterated the importance of wetlands and water, speaking of water as analogous to the body’s blood and wetlands to blood vessels.41

International Organisations working to restore mangroves

The Mangrove Action Project partners with “mangrove forest communities, grassroots NGOs, researchers, and local governments to conserve and restore mangrove forests and related coastal ecosystems, while promoting community-based sustainable management of coastal resources.” See a summary of their activities here and a video about their award winning Community-Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration (CBEMR) model below:

For more on mangrove recovery and restoration see here.

Mangroves and the Cambodian Fishing Cat Project

The success of community-led vegetation planting depends on local commitment; awareness-raising campaigns may assist in promoting local efforts to protect mangroves.42 In time, it’s likely that the Project’s activities will include habitat restoration and re-wilding, which we hope may instill a sense of community ownership and responsibility for natural resource management.

Want to help?

Aside from work on the ground, or supporting organisations which work to protect mangroves, one of the single most important things you can do to help mangroves as an individual is by being an ecologically responsible consumer: choose your seafood wisely. Although no longer widely practiced in PKWS, elsewhere in the world huge tracts of mangrove forest have been lost to shrimp aquaculture. This video from the Mangrove Action Project explains:

In this video people in southern Thailand’s Trang Province explain why they won’t raise shrimp, but will instead continue to conserve their mangroves as they have done since 1984.

You can help the cause of Fishing Cats and their mangrove habitat in Cambodia by donating to the Project here.


Or donate to the cause of other species in the mangroves, for example, consider making a donation to our newest partner, Wildlife Alliance, especially to their campaign to provide an enrichment waterfall within their Otter enclosure at their wildlife rescue centre, Phnom Tamao.

They currently have a lively family of Smooth-coated Otters and Pursat, the only Hairy-nosed Otter in captivity in the world.

Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Center

To lighten up your Friday, here is Pursat the Hairy-nosed Otter fetching his dinner and checking out his new rope toy! He is likely the only one in captivity in the world and it is wonderful to watch his movement in the water!

If suitable habitat is found with sufficient protections, these otters may one day be released back into the wild.

Stay tuned for forthcoming blogs about Wildlife Alliance and all the superb work that they do.


1“Wetlands.” WWF. World Wildlife Fund, 2017. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017.

2Mangrove Watch Ltd. (2013) Global Mangroves: Mangroves – Kidneys Of The Coast. Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

3Wetlands International. “What are Wetlands?” Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

4IUCN (2017) World Wetlands Day: “Bolstering resilience and collaboration to reduce disaster risk” (26 January 2017 media release) Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

5United Nations, World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk:

World Water Development Report (12 March 2012). Available from

6Mangrove Watch Ltd. (2013) Mangroves Defined, retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

7Spalding M, McIvor A, Tonneijck FH, Tol S and van Eijk P (2014) Mangroves for coastal defence. Guidelines for coastal managers & policy makers. (Wetlands International and The Nature Conservancy)

8Mangrove Watch Ltd. (2013) Global Mangroves: Mangroves – Kidneys Of The Coast. Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

10Davidson Nick C. (2014) How much wetland has the world lost? Long-term and recent trends in global wetland area. Marine and Freshwater Research 65, 934-941. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017.

11IUCN (2017) World Wetlands Day: Bolstering resilience and collaboration to reduce disaster risk (26 January 2017 media release) Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

12“Wetlands.” WWF. World Wildlife Fund, 2017. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017.

13Gillis, L. G., Bouma, T. J., Jones, C. G., Van Katwijk, M. M., Nagelkerken, I., Jeuken, C. J. L., … & Ziegler, A. D. (2014). Potential for landscape-scale positive interactions among tropical marine ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 503, 289-303.

14United Nations Environment Programme (14 July 2010), “Mangroves Report Reveals Threats & Opportunities to Global Economy & the Planet”. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017

15Mazda, Y., Magi, M., Ikeda, Y., Kurokawa, T., & Asano, T. (2006). Wave reduction in a mangrove forest dominated by Sonneratia sp. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 14(4), 365-378.

16Zhang, K., Liu, H., Li, Y., Xu, H., Shen, J., Rhome, J., & Smith, T. J. (2012). The role of mangroves in attenuating storm surges. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 102, 11-23.

17Gedan, K. B., Kirwan, M. L., Wolanski, E., Barbier, E. B., & Silliman, B. R. (2011). The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: answering recent challenges to the paradigm. Climatic Change, 106(1), 7-29.

18Spalding M, McIvor A, Tonneijck FH, Tol S and van Eijk P (2014) Mangroves for coastal defence. Guidelines for coastal managers & policy makers. (Wetlands International and The Nature Conservancy)

19Spalding M, McIvor A, Tonneijck FH, Tol S and van Eijk P (2014) Mangroves for coastal defence. Guidelines for coastal managers & policy makers. (Wetlands International and The Nature Conservancy)

20Bergen, M., Conservational International, “The Giving Trees: How an accidental forest saved a village from a storm for the ages” Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February.

21UNHCR (7 November 2014) “1-year on from Typhoon Haiyan, thousands of people still rebuilding lives.” Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017.

22Lee, S. Y., Primavera, J. H., Dahdouh‐Guebas, F., McKee, K., Bosire, J. O., Cannicci, S., … & Mendelssohn, I. (2014). Ecological role and services of tropical mangrove ecosystems: a reassessment. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23(7), 726-743.

23McKee, K. L., Cahoon, D. R., & Feller, I. C. (2007). Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16(5), 545-556.

24Yates, K. K., Rogers, C. S., Herlan, J. J., Brooks, G. R., Smiley, N. A., & Larson, R. A. (2014). Diverse coral communities in mangrove habitats suggest a novel refuge from climate change. Biogeosciences, 4321.

25IUCN (2017) World Wetlands Day: Bolstering resilience and collaboration to reduce disaster risk (26 January 2017 media release) Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

26IUCN (2017) World Wetlands Day: Bolstering resilience and collaboration to reduce disaster risk (26 January 2017 media release) Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

27Scholander, P. F. (1968), How Mangroves Desalinate Seawater. Physiologia Plantarum, 21: 251–261. Retrieved from doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1968.tb07248.x Accessed 2 February 2017.

28Attenborough, D., Salisbury, M., Nightingale, N., Haynes, I., Elsbury, M., Payne, J., & Olive, S. (1995). The private life of plants. BBC.

29Waisel, Y., Eshel, A. and Agami, M. (1986), Salt balance of leaves of the mangrove Avicennia marina. Physiologia Plantarum, 67: 67–72. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1986.tb01264.x

30Kristensen, E., Bouillon, S., Dittmar, T., & Marchand, C. (2008). Organic carbon dynamics in mangrove ecosystems: a review. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 201-219.

32United Nations Enviroment Programme (14 July 2010), “Mangroves Report Reveals Threats & Opportunities to Global Economy & the Planet”. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017

33Mangrove Watch Ltd. (2013) Global Mangroves: Mangroves – Kidneys Of The Coast. Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

34Mangrove Watch Ltd. (2013) Global Mangroves: Mangroves – Kidneys Of The Coast. Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

35Ramsar Convention (8 July 1999) Cambodia becomes the 116th Contracting Party

36Ramsar Convention Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS): KH998RIS (2009-2012 version) Available from

37Ramsar Convention Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS): KH998RIS (2009-2012 version) Available from

38Ramsar Convention Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS): KH998RIS (2009-2012 version) Available from

39Maxwell Braun, D. (July 14, 2010) Taking stock of mangroves, thin frontlines of diversity, National Geographic Society. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017.

40Zhu, X., Linham, M. M., & Nicholls, R. J. (2010). Technologies for climate change adaptation-Coastal erosion and flooding.

41Bou, V. (2013) Report of World Wetlands Day 2013 in Cambodia (Ramsar Convention and BirdLife International Cambodia) Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

42Zhu, X., Linham, M. M., & Nicholls, R. J. (2010). Technologies for climate change adaptation-Coastal erosion and flooding.


Braun, D.M (14 July 2010), “ ‘Atlas of Mangroves’ highlights global loss of tidal forests”, National Geographic Society. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017

IUCN (2017) World Wetlands Day: Bolstering resilience and collaboration to reduce disaster risk (26 January 2017 media release) Retrieved from Accessed on 1 February 2017.

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (2016) Five wetlands that help us cope with extreme weather events. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017.

United National Environment Programme (19 July 2010), “CNN: Mangroves disappearing faster than land-based forests, THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE NEWS: UNEP and the Executive Director in the News. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017.

World Fish (2013) Coral Triangle Atlas. Retrieved from Accessed on 2 February 2017.

PDF24    Send article as PDF   


Biomimicry of mangroves’ filtration

Biomimicry, as defined by the Biomimicry Institute, is “an approach to innovation that seeks sustainable solutions to human challenges by emulating nature’s time-tested patterns and strategies.” President Janine Benyus explains in the following video:

That mangroves desalinate seawater has been known to scientists for decades1,with David Attenborough writing in his 1994 book, The Private Life of Plants:

“Some mangroves deal with (the) continuous inward flow of salt by carrying it away from their roots in their sap and depositing it in their older leaves that are soon due to be shed. Others have glands on their leaves which excrete it in solutions that are twenty times more concentrated than their sap, and even greater than it is in sea water.”2

One study found that salt filtration by the roots prevents some 80% of salt from entering the shoot. Of what salt remains to enter the root xylem and reach the leaves, only 40% is removed by the salt-secreting glands.3

For a brief explanation of how different mangrove species extrude salt, see the video lecture below, presented by Lecturer in Environmental Marine Biology at the University of Hull, UK, Dr Magnus Johnson:

Fast forward to 2015, when Team Planet answered the Biomimicry Institute’s Global Design Challange with their Mangrove Still design, which can desalinate water and provide it to the land or for drinking,” with efficiency comparable to current solar stills but at costs five times lower making it a financially viable desalination process… for poor people.” See a video about the team’s design below:

Team Planet‘s Co-founder and Certified Biomimicry Professional Alessandro Bianciardi discusses the Mangrove Still as a Biomimicry Design Challenge Ray of Hope Prize Finalist here.

For a longer presentation about Team Planet’s design from engineer Edoardo Pini see below:

1 Scholander, P. F., Hammel, H. T., Hemmingsen, E. A., & Bradstreet, E. D. (1964). Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic potential in leaves of mangroves and some other plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 52(1), 119-125.

2Attenborough, D. (1995). The private life of plants: a natural history of plant behaviour. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press: 298 cited in “Old Leaves Help Remove Excess Salt : Mangroves.” AskNature. Accessed on 1 February 2017.

3Waisel, Y., Eshel, A. and Agami, M. (1986), Salt balance of leaves of the mangrove Avicennia marina. Physiologia Plantarum, 67: 67–72. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1986.tb01264.x

Wildscan Wildlife Identification App Launches in Cambodia

One of the greatest challenges for wildlife rangers, life enforcement officers and the general public in Cambodia is identifying protected species, whether in the field, at restaurants or at markets.  Recently launched in Khmer (the primary spoken language in Cambodia) and optimised to feature local species often targeted by the illegal wildlife trade, WildScan is sure to prove a valuable tool. Sincere thanks to Wildlife Alliance, anti-wildlife trafficking organization Freeland, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for developing this innovation app.

Wildscan Wildlife ID app launches in Cambodia

WildScan: Wildlife identification app launches in Cambodia to stop illegal trading

WildScan project manager Matthew Pritchett agreed, and added that Cambodia is being used to traffic foreign wildlife as well which law enforcement may not be familiar with – which is where the WildScan app comes in handy.

A Forestry Administration officer, Lun Panha, told the Phnom Penh Post that the app helps to tell him “which animals are rare or endangered species”.


See also:

Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network (TEAM) Wildlife Monitoring Solutions

In their words, “TEAM’s mission is to deliver multi-scale, real-time understanding of how key elements of Earth’s operating system — climate, carbon stocks, biodiversity — are changing, and what this means for people.”

TEAM network offers several solutions for wildlife monitoring, as detailed here and here.


Two new tools for camera-trap data handling and analysis



Software to automatically identify animals from their natural markings:

Camera-trapping analysis

Camera trapping expert Pedro Sarmento blogs in detail about how to analyse camera-trap data using the latest methodologies. Even if you don’t understand Portuguese screenshots and links to primary literature will guide you through complex analysis methods.

The Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool (SMART)

“The remaining wildlife in Seima Protected Forest, including the treasured elephant, is under constant threat from poaching, logging, mining, agriculture, and infrastructure development. Due to a combination of factors, such as limited rangers and remote substations, it is difficult to manage patrol efforts and achieve conservation goals. The team uses SMART to collate and transform collected data into easy to read maps of patrol coverage and observations, as well as summary tables of effort, results, confiscations and arrests.”    Send article as PDF   

Small Wild Cats

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See our Blog post about fantastic photo and video captures of another small wild cat species in the Cardamoms landscape here.

Q&A with Jim SandersonJIm Sanderson Q & AGlobal Wildlife Conservation (GWC) has a new program manager of wild cat conservation:  good colleague, founder of Small Wild Cat Conservation Foundation, member of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group and the Fishing Cat Working Group, Jim Sanderson.

We had the pleasure of meeting and working alongside Jim at the First International Fishing Cat Conservation Symposium in Nepal in November 2015 to develop a Conservation Strategy Plan for the Fishing Cat after years of hearing about his concerted efforts to conserve wild cats and their habitats worldwide.

Here Jim talks about his work, including what drives him to conserve small wild cats, his favourite part of fieldwork and his hopes for the future of the planet’s wildlife.


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Asiatic Golden Cat in the Cardamoms


Asiatic Golden Cat by Karen Stout (CC by SA 2.0)

We were thrilled to see recent camera-trap captures from Wildlife Alliance of an Asiatic Golden Cat in a remote corner of the Cardamom mountains. One of Cambodia’s seven wild cat species and listed as Near-threatened, these captures show a Golden Cat individual living in its natural habitat.

Why is the Golden Cat at risk?

The species is threatened by habitat loss and poaching; in October 2014, Wildlife Alliance confiscated two pelts which were destined for the international market from a trader in Phnom Penh. Read more about the Asiatic Golden Cat here.

Wildlife Alliance in the Cardamoms

One of several environmental NGOs active in the Cardamoms landscape, Wildlife Alliance strives to ensure effective law enforcement to protect biodiversity of the southern Cardamoms where it works.

Major success stories include maintaining 2 million acres of critical wildlife corridor, and providing habitat protection for 26 at-risk species, including Asian elephants. They recently celebrated a decade of zero elephant poaching in the Cardamoms.

Good neighbours to have

We feel extremely fortunate to have such effective and fervent champions of biodiversity working in the area neighbouring PKWS. We look forward to collaborating with Wildlife Alliance on small cat conservation in future.

More about Wildlife Alliance

Since their arrival in the country back in 2000, Wildlife Alliance have time and time again proven to be a formidable force in the struggle against habitat destruction, illegal hunting and the wildlife trade in Cambodia.

Their Wildlife Rapid Rescue Team (WRRT) have rescued over 60,000 live animals and arrested 3,100 traffickers over the last decade, winning them the United Nations award for best wildlife law enforcement in Asia in 2015.

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Fishing Cat habitat part of new protected area network

Coastal mangroves are now contiguous with a protected area network of nearly 2.4 million ha

In May 2016, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) declared five new protected areas (PAs) covering over one million ha of forest and grassland. This brings the total coverage of the national protected area system to 34% of the Cambodian land surface (Central Intelligence Agency, 2016; Open Development Cambodia, 2016b).

Biodiversity status

Cambodia forms part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot which, with its high levels of fauna and flora endemism, and limited remaining natural habitat, ranks among the top 10 for irreplaceability and top five for threat, according to the IUCN. Alarmingly, 37% of the key biodiversity areas within the region are not under any formal protection.

Fishing Cat habitat within protected area network

Amongst the new PAs declared is Chuo Phnom Kravanh Khang Tbong National Park, which links the Central Cardamom Mountains National Park with Tatai Wildlife Sanctuary, and connects the ridges of the Cardamom Mountains to the coastal mangroves at Peam Krosaop Wildlife Sanctuary (PKWS), a possible Fishing Cat stronghold in SE Asia, and Botum-Sakor National Park.

Figure 1: Protected areas designated in Cambodia in 2016 (light green): 1) Chuo Phnom Kravanh Khang Tbong National Park; previously established protected areas (dark green): A) Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, B) Central Cardamom Mountains National Park, C) Phnom Aural Wildlife Sanctuary, D) Peam Krasop Wildlife Sanctuary, E) Tatai Wildlife Sanctuary, F) Botum-Sakor National Park, G) Samlaut Multiple Use area (Map adapted from by Souter at el 2016).


The contiguous protected area network through and adjoining the Cardamom Mountains now covers nearly 2.4 million ha (Open Development Cambodia, 2016b,c), stretching as far north as Samlaut Multiple Use area in Cambodia; Namtok Khlong Kaew National Park and Khlong Kruewai Chalearm Phrakiat Wildlife Sanctuary in Thailand.

More protection for the Fishing Cat

The declaration confers greater protection on the Fishing Cat as a species within the Cardamoms landscape, where there have been numerous records of the species: seized individuals from a village close to Botum Sakor National Park in 2008 (Royan 2009), two Fishing Cat kittens from Prey Nop district and from Koh Kong province in 2014, both courtesy of the Wildlife Alliance Wildlife Rapid Rescue Team (WRRT) (Gauntlett, pers comm), and a pelt discovered in Phnom Samkoh Wildlife Sanctuary (north Cardamom Mountains) by FFI staff in 2015. (Read more…)

Greater genetic diversity of Fishing Cat populations

Connectivity yields the possibility of greater genetic exchange between populations, enabling even transnational migration of Fishing Cats, thus strengthening the case for continued surveying of Fishing Cats across the landscape in order to characterise the metapopulation.

Other threatened species in the Cardamoms landscape

The expansion of the Cardamom Mountains protected landscape should reduce risk to 54 other globally threatened species (Killeen, 2012), especially Endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) threatened with habitat fragmentation.

It may also benefit future tiger (Panthera tigris) populations; the National Park has been identified as a priority site for tiger restoration in Cambodia (DWB/GTI, 2016)- native Indochinese tigers were declared functionally extinct in the country in 2016 (Read more).

Future additional protections- UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve

The new declaration as Souter et al. (2016) point out, “strengthens justifications for designation of the area as a UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve [MAB].” Such reserves aim to integrate people and nature for sustainable development, involving multiple stakeholder agreement in designated zoning with various levels of protection, from maximum protection within core zones to transition zones where regulated activities may take place. Importantly, UNESCO MAB is a globally recognised figure, likely yielding increased investment in biodiversity research and conservation efforts, which is crucial within a protected area system which is severely underfunded (Souter et al. 2016).

In conclusion, we join Souter et al. (2016) and the conservation NGOs they represent in disseminating news of the RGC declaration, and hope that this and future decisions help to direct resources and technical support towards areas rich in biodiversity within a Hotspot that is one of the most biologically rich- and highly threatened- places in the world.

Read more about conservation plans in the new National Park


Central Intelligence Agency (2016) The World Factbook: Cambodia.[accessed 10 June 2016].

DWB/GTI (2016) Cambodian Tiger Action Plan. Department of Wildlife and Biodiversity, Forestry Administration, MAFF and Global Tiger Initiative. Phnom Penh, Cambodia [in Khmer].

IUCN: “On the verge of extinction: A look at endangered species in the Indo-Burma Hotspot”, 16 June 2015 [accessed 26 July 2016].

Killeen, T.J. (2012) The Cardamom Conundrum: Reconciling Development and Conservation in the Kingdom of Cambodia. National University of Singapore Press, Singapore.

Souter, N., J., Simpson, V., Mould, A., Eames, J. C., Gray, T. N., Sinclair, R., Farrell, T., Jurgens, J., A., & Billingsley, A. (2016). Editorial—Will the recent changes in protected area management and the creation of five new protected areas improve biodiversity conservation in Cambodia? Cambodian Journal of Natural History, 1: 1-5 [accessed 25 July 2016].

Open Development Cambodia (2016b) Natural Protected Areas in Cambodia (1993-2016) [accessed 10 June 2016].

Open Development Cambodia (2016c) Greater Mekong Subregion Protected and Heritage Areas. [accessed 10 June 2016].    Send article as PDF